pp-trace User’s Manual

pp-trace is a standalone tool that traces preprocessor activity. It’s also used as a test of Clang’s PPCallbacks interface. It runs a given source file through the Clang preprocessor, displaying selected information from callback functions overridden in a PPCallbacks derivation. The output is in a high-level YAML format, described in pp-trace Output Format.

pp-trace Usage

Command Line Format

pp-trace [<pp-trace-options>] <source-file> [-- <front-end-options>]

<pp-trace-options> is a place-holder for options specific to pp-trace, which are described below in Command Line Options.

<source-file> specifies the source file to run through the preprocessor.

<front-end-options> is a place-holder for regular Clang Compiler Options, which must follow the <source-file>.

Command Line Options

-callbacks <comma-separated-globs>

This option specifies a comma-separated list of globs describing the list of callbacks that should be traced. Globs are processed in order of appearance. Positive globs add matched callbacks to the set, netative globs (those with the ‘-‘ prefix) remove callacks from the set.

  • FileChanged

  • FileSkipped

  • FileNotFound

  • InclusionDirective

  • moduleImport

  • EndOfMainFile

  • Ident

  • PragmaDirective

  • PragmaComment

  • PragmaDetectMismatch

  • PragmaDebug

  • PragmaMessage

  • PragmaDiagnosticPush

  • PragmaDiagnosticPop

  • PragmaDiagnostic

  • PragmaOpenCLExtension

  • PragmaWarning

  • PragmaWarningPush

  • PragmaWarningPop

  • MacroExpands

  • MacroDefined

  • MacroUndefined

  • Defined

  • SourceRangeSkipped

  • If

  • Elif

  • Ifdef

  • Ifndef

  • Else

  • Endif

-output <output-file>

By default, pp-trace outputs the trace information to stdout. Use this option to output the trace information to a file.

pp-trace Output Format

The pp-trace output is formatted as YAML. See https://yaml.org/ for general YAML information. It’s arranged as a sequence of information about the callback call, including the callback name and argument information, for example::

---
- Callback: Name
  Argument1: Value1
  Argument2: Value2
(etc.)
...

With real data::

---
- Callback: FileChanged
  Loc: "c:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-include.cpp:1:1"
  Reason: EnterFile
  FileType: C_User
  PrevFID: (invalid)
  (etc.)
- Callback: FileChanged
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-include.cpp:5:1"
  Reason: ExitFile
  FileType: C_User
  PrevFID: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/Input/Level1B.h"
- Callback: EndOfMainFile
...

In all but one case (MacroDirective) the “Argument” scalars have the same name as the argument in the corresponding PPCallbacks callback function.

Callback Details

The following sections describe the pupose and output format for each callback.

Click on the callback name in the section heading to see the Doxygen documentation for the callback.

The argument descriptions table describes the callback argument information displayed.

The Argument Name field in most (but not all) cases is the same name as the callback function parameter.

The Argument Value Syntax field describes the values that will be displayed for the argument value. It uses an ad hoc representation that mixes literal and symbolic representations. Enumeration member symbols are shown as the actual enum member in a (member1|member2|…) form. A name in parentheses can either represent a place holder for the described value, or confusingly, it might be a literal, such as (null), for a null pointer. Locations are shown as quoted only to avoid confusing the documentation generator.

The Clang C++ Type field is the type from the callback function declaration.

The description describes the argument or what is displayed for it.

Note that in some cases, such as when a structure pointer is an argument value, only some key member or members are shown to represent the value, instead of trying to display all members of the structure.

FileChanged Callback

FileChanged is called when the preprocessor enters or exits a file, both the top level file being compiled, as well as any #include directives. It will also be called as a result of a system header pragma or in internal renaming of a file.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

Reason

(EnterFile|ExitFile|SystemHeaderPragma|RenameFile)

PPCallbacks::FileChangeReason

Reason for change.

FileType

(C_User|C_System|C_ExternCSystem)

SrcMgr::CharacteristicKind

Include type.

PrevFID

((file)|(invalid))

FileID

Previous file, if any.

Example::

- Callback: FileChanged
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-include.cpp:1:1"
  Reason: EnterFile
  FileType: C_User
  PrevFID: (invalid)

FileSkipped Callback

FileSkipped is called when a source file is skipped as the result of header guard optimization.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

ParentFile

(“(file)” or (null))

const FileEntry

The file that #included the skipped file.

FilenameTok

(token)

const Token

The token in ParentFile that indicates the skipped file.

FileType

(C_User|C_System|C_ExternCSystem)

SrcMgr::CharacteristicKind

The file type.

Example::

- Callback: FileSkipped
  ParentFile: "/path/filename.h"
  FilenameTok: "filename.h"
  FileType: C_User

FileNotFound Callback

FileNotFound is called when an inclusion directive results in a file-not-found error.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

FileName

“(file)”

StringRef

The name of the file being included, as written in the source code.

RecoveryPath

(path)

SmallVectorImpl<char>

If this client indicates that it can recover from this missing file, the client should set this as an additional header search patch.

Example::

- Callback: FileNotFound
  FileName: "/path/filename.h"
  RecoveryPath:

InclusionDirective Callback

InclusionDirective is called when an inclusion directive of any kind (#include</code>, #import</code>, etc.) has been processed, regardless of whether the inclusion will actually result in an inclusion.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

HashLoc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the ‘#’ that starts the inclusion directive.

IncludeTok

(token)

const Token

The token that indicates the kind of inclusion directive, e.g., ‘include’ or ‘import’.

FileName

“(file)”

StringRef

The name of the file being included, as written in the source code.

IsAngled

(true|false)

bool

Whether the file name was enclosed in angle brackets; otherwise, it was enclosed in quotes.

FilenameRange

“(file)”

CharSourceRange

The character range of the quotes or angle brackets for the written file name.

File

“(file)”

const FileEntry

The actual file that may be included by this inclusion directive.

SearchPath

“(path)”

StringRef

Contains the search path which was used to find the file in the file system.

RelativePath

“(path)”

StringRef

The path relative to SearchPath, at which the include file was found.

Imported

((module name)|(null))

const Module

The module, whenever an inclusion directive was automatically turned into a module import or null otherwise.

Example::

- Callback: InclusionDirective
  IncludeTok: include
  FileName: "Input/Level1B.h"
  IsAngled: false
  FilenameRange: "Input/Level1B.h"
  File: "D:/Clang/llvmnewmod/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/Input/Level1B.h"
  SearchPath: "D:/Clang/llvmnewmod/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace"
  RelativePath: "Input/Level1B.h"
  Imported: (null)

moduleImport Callback

moduleImport is called when there was an explicit module-import syntax.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

ImportLoc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of import directive token.

Path

“(path)”

ModuleIdPath

The identifiers (and their locations) of the module “path”.

Imported

((module name)|(null))

const Module

The imported module; can be null if importing failed.

Example::

- Callback: moduleImport
  ImportLoc: "d:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-modules.cpp:4:2"
  Path: [{Name: Level1B, Loc: "d:/Clang/llvmnewmod/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-modules.cpp:4:9"}, {Name: Level2B, Loc: "d:/Clang/llvmnewmod/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-modules.cpp:4:17"}]
  Imported: Level2B

EndOfMainFile Callback

EndOfMainFile is called when the end of the main file is reached.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

(no arguments)

Example::

- Callback: EndOfMainFile

Ident Callback

Ident is called when a #ident or #sccs directive is read.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

str

(name)

const std::string

The text of the directive.

Example::

- Callback: Ident
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-ident.cpp:3:1"
  str: "$Id$"

PragmaDirective Callback

PragmaDirective is called when start reading any pragma directive.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

Introducer

(PIK_HashPragma|PIK__Pragma|PIK___pragma)

PragmaIntroducerKind

The type of the pragma directive.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaDirective
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:1"
  Introducer: PIK_HashPragma

PragmaComment Callback

PragmaComment is called when a #pragma comment directive is read.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

Kind

((name)|(null))

const IdentifierInfo

The comment kind symbol.

Str

(message directive)

const std::string

The comment message directive.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaComment
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:1"
  Kind: library
  Str: kernel32.lib

PragmaDetectMismatch Callback

PragmaDetectMismatch is called when a #pragma detect_mismatch directive is read.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

Name

“(name)”

const std::string

The name.

Value

(string)

const std::string

The value.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaDetectMismatch
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:1"
  Name: name
  Value: value

PragmaDebug Callback

PragmaDebug is called when a #pragma clang __debug directive is read.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

DebugType

(string)

StringRef

Indicates type of debug message.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaDebug
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:1"
  DebugType: warning

PragmaMessage Callback

PragmaMessage is called when a #pragma message directive is read.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

Namespace

(name)

StringRef

The namespace of the message directive.

Kind

(PMK_Message|PMK_Warning|PMK_Error)

PPCallbacks::PragmaMessageKind

The type of the message directive.

Str

(string)

StringRef

The text of the message directive.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaMessage
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:1"
  Namespace: "GCC"
  Kind: PMK_Message
  Str: The message text.

PragmaDiagnosticPush Callback

PragmaDiagnosticPush is called when a #pragma gcc diagnostic push directive is read.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

Namespace

(name)

StringRef

Namespace name.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaDiagnosticPush
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:1"
  Namespace: "GCC"

PragmaDiagnosticPop Callback

PragmaDiagnosticPop is called when a #pragma gcc diagnostic pop directive is read.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

Namespace

(name)

StringRef

Namespace name.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaDiagnosticPop
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:1"
  Namespace: "GCC"

PragmaDiagnostic Callback

PragmaDiagnostic is called when a #pragma gcc diagnostic directive is read.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

Namespace

(name)

StringRef

Namespace name.

mapping

(0|MAP_IGNORE|MAP_WARNING|MAP_ERROR|MAP_FATAL)

diag::Severity

Mapping type.

Str

(string)

StringRef

Warning/error name.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaDiagnostic
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:1"
  Namespace: "GCC"
  mapping: MAP_WARNING
  Str: WarningName

PragmaOpenCLExtension Callback

PragmaOpenCLExtension is called when OpenCL extension is either disabled or enabled with a pragma.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

NameLoc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the name.

Name

(name)

const IdentifierInfo

Name symbol.

StateLoc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the state.

State

(1|0)

unsigned

Enabled/disabled state.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaOpenCLExtension
  NameLoc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:10"
  Name: Name
  StateLoc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:18"
  State: 1

PragmaWarning Callback

PragmaWarning is called when a #pragma warning directive is read.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

WarningSpec

(string)

StringRef

The warning specifier.

Ids

[(number)[, …]]

ArrayRef<int>

The warning numbers.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaWarning
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:1"
  WarningSpec: disable
  Ids: 1,2,3

PragmaWarningPush Callback

PragmaWarningPush is called when a #pragma warning(push) directive is read.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

Level

(number)

int

Warning level.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaWarningPush
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:1"
  Level: 1

PragmaWarningPop Callback

PragmaWarningPop is called when a #pragma warning(pop) directive is read.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

Example::

- Callback: PragmaWarningPop
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-pragma.cpp:3:1"

MacroExpands Callback

MacroExpands is called when ::HandleMacroExpandedIdentifier when a macro invocation is found.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

MacroNameTok

(token)

const Token

The macro name token.

MacroDirective

(MD_Define|MD_Undefine|MD_Visibility)

const MacroDirective

The kind of macro directive from the MacroDirective structure.

Range

[“(file):(line):(col)”, “(file):(line):(col)”]

SourceRange

The source range for the expansion.

Args

[(name)|(number)|<(token name)>[, …]]

const MacroArgs

The argument tokens. Names and numbers are literal, everything else is of the form ‘<’ tokenName ‘>’.

Example::

- Callback: MacroExpands
  MacroNameTok: X_IMPL
  MacroDirective: MD_Define
  Range: [(nonfile), (nonfile)]
  Args: [a <plus> y, b]

MacroDefined Callback

MacroDefined is called when a macro definition is seen.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

MacroNameTok

(token)

const Token

The macro name token.

MacroDirective

(MD_Define|MD_Undefine|MD_Visibility)

const MacroDirective

The kind of macro directive from the MacroDirective structure.

Example::

- Callback: MacroDefined
  MacroNameTok: X_IMPL
  MacroDirective: MD_Define

MacroUndefined Callback

MacroUndefined is called when a macro #undef is seen.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

MacroNameTok

(token)

const Token

The macro name token.

MacroDirective

(MD_Define|MD_Undefine|MD_Visibility)

const MacroDirective

The kind of macro directive from the MacroDirective structure.

Example::

- Callback: MacroUndefined
  MacroNameTok: X_IMPL
  MacroDirective: MD_Define

Defined Callback

Defined is called when the ‘defined’ operator is seen.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

MacroNameTok

(token)

const Token

The macro name token.

MacroDirective

(MD_Define|MD_Undefine|MD_Visibility)

const MacroDirective

The kind of macro directive from the MacroDirective structure.

Range

[“(file):(line):(col)”, “(file):(line):(col)”]

SourceRange

The source range for the directive.

Example::

- Callback: Defined
  MacroNameTok: MACRO
  MacroDirective: (null)
  Range: ["D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:8:5", "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:8:19"]

SourceRangeSkipped Callback

SourceRangeSkipped is called when a source range is skipped.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Range

[“(file):(line):(col)”, “(file):(line):(col)”]

SourceRange

The source range skipped.

Example::

- Callback: SourceRangeSkipped
  Range: [":/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:8:2", ":/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:9:2"]

If Callback

If is called when an #if is seen.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

ConditionRange

[“(file):(line):(col)”, “(file):(line):(col)”]

SourceRange

The source range for the condition.

ConditionValue

(true|false)

bool

The condition value.

Example::

- Callback: If
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:8:2"
  ConditionRange: ["D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:8:4", "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:9:1"]
  ConditionValue: false

Elif Callback

Elif is called when an #elif is seen.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

ConditionRange

[“(file):(line):(col)”, “(file):(line):(col)”]

SourceRange

The source range for the condition.

ConditionValue

(true|false)

bool

The condition value.

IfLoc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

Example::

- Callback: Elif
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:10:2"
  ConditionRange: ["D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:10:4", "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:11:1"]
  ConditionValue: false
  IfLoc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:8:2"

Ifdef Callback

Ifdef is called when an #ifdef is seen.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

MacroNameTok

(token)

const Token

The macro name token.

MacroDirective

(MD_Define|MD_Undefine|MD_Visibility)

const MacroDirective

The kind of macro directive from the MacroDirective structure.

Example::

- Callback: Ifdef
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-conditional.cpp:3:1"
  MacroNameTok: MACRO
  MacroDirective: MD_Define

Ifndef Callback

Ifndef is called when an #ifndef is seen.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the directive.

MacroNameTok

(token)

const Token

The macro name token.

MacroDirective

(MD_Define|MD_Undefine|MD_Visibility)

const MacroDirective

The kind of macro directive from the MacroDirective structure.

Example::

- Callback: Ifndef
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-conditional.cpp:3:1"
  MacroNameTok: MACRO
  MacroDirective: MD_Define

Else Callback

Else is called when an #else is seen.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the else directive.

IfLoc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the if directive.

Example::

- Callback: Else
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:10:2"
  IfLoc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:8:2"

Endif Callback

Endif is called when an #endif is seen.

Argument descriptions:

Argument Name

Argument Value Syntax

Clang C++ Type

Description

Loc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the endif directive.

IfLoc

“(file):(line):(col)”

SourceLocation

The location of the if directive.

Example::

- Callback: Endif
  Loc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:10:2"
  IfLoc: "D:/Clang/llvm/clang-tools-extra/test/pp-trace/pp-trace-macro.cpp:8:2"

Building pp-trace

To build from source:

  1. Read Getting Started with the LLVM System and Clang Tools Documentation for information on getting sources for LLVM, Clang, and Clang Extra Tools.

  2. Getting Started with the LLVM System and Building LLVM with CMake give directions for how to build. With sources all checked out into the right place the LLVM build will build Clang Extra Tools and their dependencies automatically.

    • If using CMake, you can also use the pp-trace target to build just the pp-trace tool and its dependencies.