ThinLTO compilation is a new type of LTO that is both scalable and incremental. LTO (Link Time Optimization) achieves better runtime performance through whole-program analysis and cross-module optimization. However, monolithic LTO implements this by merging all input into a single module, which is not scalable in time or memory, and also prevents fast incremental compiles.
In ThinLTO mode, as with regular LTO, clang emits LLVM bitcode after the compile phase. The ThinLTO bitcode is augmented with a compact summary of the module. During the link step, only the summaries are read and merged into a combined summary index, which includes an index of function locations for later cross-module function importing. Fast and efficient whole-program analysis is then performed on the combined summary index.
However, all transformations, including function importing, occur later when the modules are optimized in fully parallel backends. By default, linkers that support ThinLTO are set up to launch the ThinLTO backends in threads. So the usage model is not affected as the distinction between the fast serial thin link step and the backends is transparent to the user.
For more information on the ThinLTO design and current performance, see the LLVM blog post ThinLTO: Scalable and Incremental LTO. While tuning is still in progress, results in the blog post show that ThinLTO already performs well compared to LTO, in many cases matching the performance improvement.
To utilize ThinLTO, simply add the -flto=thin option to compile and link. E.g.
% clang -flto=thin -O2 file1.c file2.c -c % clang -flto=thin -O2 file1.o file2.o -o a.out
When using lld-link, the -flto option need only be added to the compile step:
% clang-cl -flto=thin -O2 -c file1.c file2.c % lld-link /out:a.exe file1.obj file2.obj
As mentioned earlier, by default the linkers will launch the ThinLTO backend threads in parallel, passing the resulting native object files back to the linker for the final native link. As such, the usage model the same as non-LTO.
With gold, if you see an error during the link of the form:
/usr/bin/ld: error: /path/to/clang/bin/../lib/LLVMgold.so: could not load plugin library: /path/to/clang/bin/../lib/LLVMgold.so: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
Then either gold was not configured with plugins enabled, or clang
was not built with
-DLLVM_BINUTILS_INCDIR set properly. See
the instructions for the
LLVM gold plugin.
By default, the ThinLTO link step will launch as many
threads in parallel as there are cores. If the number of
cores can’t be computed for the architecture, then it will launch
std::thread::hardware_concurrency number of threads in parallel.
For machines with hyper-threading, this is the total number of
virtual cores. For some applications and machine configurations this
may be too aggressive, in which case the amount of parallelism can
be reduced to
ThinLTO supports fast incremental builds through the use of a cache, which currently must be enabled through a linker option.
gold (as of LLVM 4.0):
ld64 (support in clang 3.9 and Xcode 8):
ELF lld (as of LLVM 5.0):
COFF lld-link (as of LLVM 6.0):
To help keep the size of the cache under control, ThinLTO supports cache pruning. Cache pruning is supported with gold, ld64 and ELF and COFF lld, but currently only gold, ELF and COFF lld allow you to control the policy with a policy string. The cache policy must be specified with a linker option.
gold (as of LLVM 6.0):
ELF lld (as of LLVM 5.0):
COFF lld-link (as of LLVM 6.0):
A policy string is a series of key-value pairs separated by
Possible key-value pairs are:
cache_size=X%: The maximum size for the cache directory is
Xpercent of the available space on the disk. Set to 100 to indicate no limit, 50 to indicate that the cache size will not be left over half the available disk space. A value over 100 is invalid. A value of 0 disables the percentage size-based pruning. The default is 75%.
cache_size_bytes=Xg: Sets the maximum size for the cache directory to
Xbytes (or KB, MB, GB respectively). A value over the amount of available space on the disk will be reduced to the amount of available space. A value of 0 disables the byte size-based pruning. The default is no byte size-based pruning.
Note that ThinLTO will apply both size-based pruning policies simultaneously, and changing one does not affect the other. For example, a policy of
cache_size_bytes=1gon its own will cause both the 1GB and default 75% policies to be applied unless the default
cache_size_files=X: Set the maximum number of files in the cache directory. Set to 0 to indicate no limit. The default is 1000000 files.
prune_after=Xh: Sets the expiration time for cache files to
Xseconds (or minutes, hours respectively). When a file hasn’t been accessed for
prune_afterseconds, it is removed from the cache. A value of 0 disables the expiration-based pruning. The default is 1 week.
prune_interval=Xh: Sets the pruning interval to
Xseconds (or minutes, hours respectively). This is intended to be used to avoid scanning the directory too often. It does not impact the decision of which files to prune. A value of 0 forces the scan to occur. The default is every 20 minutes.
To bootstrap clang/LLVM with ThinLTO, follow these steps:
The host compiler must be a version of clang that supports ThinLTO.
Use the following additional CMake variables when configuring the bootstrap compiler build:
Or, on Windows:
To use additional linker arguments for controlling the backend parallelism or enabling incremental builds of the bootstrap compiler, after configuring the build, modify the resulting CMakeCache.txt file in the build directory. Specify any additional linker options after
CMAKE_EXE_LINKER_FLAGS:STRING=. Note the configure may fail if linker plugin options are instead specified directly in the previous step.
The BOOTSTRAP_LLVM_ENABLE_LTO=Thin` will enable ThinLTO for stage 2 and stage 3 in case the compiler used for stage 1 does not support the ThinLTO option.