Common C++ classes and routines used by my applications such as argument parser, IO and conversion utilities
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# C++ utilities
Useful C++ classes and routines such as argument parser, IO and conversion utilities.
## Features
The library contains helpers for:
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* parsing command-line arguments and providing Bash completion
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- supports nested arguments
- supports operations (no `--` or `-` prefix, eg. `git status`)
- can check for invalid or uncombinable arguments
- can print help automatically
- provides automatic Bash completion for argument names
- allows customizing Bash completion for argument values
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* dealing with dates and times
* conversion of primitive data types to byte-buffers and vice versa (litte-endian and big-endian)
* common string conversions/operations, eg.
- character set conversions via iconv
- split, join, find and replace
- conversion from number to string and vice verca
- encoding/decoding base-64
- building string without multiple heap allocations ("string builder")
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* using standard IO streams
- reading/writing primitive data types of various sizes (little-endian and big-endian)
- reading/writing terminated strings and size-prefixed strings
- reading/writing INI files
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- reading bitwise (from a buffer; not using standard IO streams)
- writing formatted output using ANSI escape sequences
- instantiating a standard IO stream from a native file descriptor to support UTF-8 encoded
file paths under Windows and Android's `content://` URLs
* using SFINAE by providing additional traits, eg. for checking whether a type is iteratable
* testing with *CppUnit*
- finding testfiles and make working copies of testfiles
- assert standard output
- various helper
* building with CMake by providing some modules and templates
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Besides, the library provides a few useful algorithms and data structures:
* min(), max() for any number of arguments
* digitsum(), factorial(), powerModulo(), inverseModulo(), orderModulo()
* Damerau–Levenshtein distance
* *N*-dimensional array
## API/ABI stability
The following counts for `c++utilities` and my other libraries unless stated otherwise:
* Different major versions are incompatible (API- and ABI-wise). Different major versions can be
installed within the same prefix using the CMake variable `CONFIGURATION_NAME` (see documentation
about build variables mentioned below).
* Minor versions are backwards compatible (API- and ABI-wise) to previous ones within the same major
version.
* Patch versions are interchangeable (API- and ABI-wise) within the same major/minor version.
* Some functions or classes are experimental. They might be modified in an incompatible way or even
removed in the next minor or patch release.
## Build instructions
### Requirements
#### Build-only dependencies
* C++ compiler supporting C++17, tested with
- clang++ to compile for GNU/Linux and Android
- g++ to compile for GNU/Linux and Windows
* CMake (at least 3.3.0)
* cppunit for unit tests (optional)
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* Doxygen for API documentation (optional)
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* Graphviz for diagrams in the API documentation (optional)
* clang-format for tidying (optional)
* llvm-profdata, llvm-cov and cppunit for source-based code coverage analysis (optional)
#### Runtime dependencies
* The c++utilities library itself only needs
* C++ standard library supporting C++17, tested with
- libstdc++ under GNU/Linux and Windows
- libc++ under GNU/Linux and Android
* glibc with iconv support or standalone iconv library
* libstdc++ or Boost.Iostreams for `NativeFileStream` (optional)
* For dependencies of my other projects check the README.md of these projects.
### How to build
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Example using `make`:
```
cd "path/to/build/directory"
cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release \
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX="/final/install/location" \
"path/to/projectdirectory"
make tidy # format source files (optional, must be enabled via CLANG_FORMAT_ENABLED)
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make # build the binaries
make check # build and run tests (optional)
make coverage # build and run tests measuring test coverage (optional, must be enabled via CLANG_SOURCE_BASED_COVERAGE_ENABLED)
make apidoc # build API documentation (optional)
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make DESTDIR="/temporary/install/location" install # install binaries, headers and additional files
```
#### General notes
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* The make option ```-j``` can be used for concurrent compilation.
* ```LIB_SUFFIX```, ```LIB_SUFFIX_32``` and ```LIB_SUFFIX_64``` can be set to
specify a suffix for the library directory, eg. lib*64* or lib*32*. The 32/64 variants are only used when building for 32/64-bit architecture.
* By default the build system will *build* static libs. To *build* shared libraries *instead*, set `BUILD_SHARED_LIBS=ON`.
* By default the build system will prefer *linking against* shared libraries. To force *linking against* static libraries set `STATIC_LINKAGE=ON`.
However, this will only affect applications. To force linking statically when building shared libraries set `STATIC_LIBRARY_LINKAGE=ON`.
* If thread local storage is not supported by your compiler/platform (might be the case on MacOS), you can disable making use of it
via `ENABLE_THREAD_LOCAL=OFF`.
* To disable use of `std::filesystem`, set `USE_STANDARD_FILESYSTEM=OFF`. This is required when building for MacOS and Android at the time of
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writing this documentation. Note that the Bash completion will not be able to suggest files and directories with `USE_STANDARD_FILESYSTEM=OFF`.
* To disable `NativeFileStream` (and make it just a regular `std::fstream`), set `USE_NATIVE_FILE_BUFFER=OFF`. Note that handling paths with
non-ASCII characters will then cease to work on Windows.
* For more detailed documentation, see the documentation about build variables (in
[directory doc](https://github.com/Martchus/cpp-utilities/blob/master/doc/buildvariables.md) and
in Doxygen version accessible via "Related Pages").
* The repository [PKGBUILDs](https://github.com/Martchus/PKGBUILDs) contains build scripts for GNU/Linux, Android, Windows and
MacOS X in form of Arch Linux packages using `ninja`. These scripts can be used as an example also when building under/for other platforms.
#### Windows-specific notes
* To create application icons the tool `ffmpeg`/`avconv` is required.
* Windows builds are only conducted using mingw-w64/GCC. Using MSVC has never been tested.
#### MacOS-specific notes
* To create application icons the tool `png2icns` is required.
* Building for MacOS X under GNU/Linux is possible using [osxcross](https://github.com/tpoechtrager/osxcross).
* MacOS X builds are not tested regularly but should generally work (maybe with minor tweaks necassary)
* There is a [Homebrew formula](https://gist.github.com/rakkesh/0b13b8fca5dd1d57d98537ef1dd2e0dd) to build Tag Editor (without GUI)
* There are [MacPorts packages](https://www.macports.org/ports.php?by=name&substr=syncthingtray-devel) to build Syncthing Tray
#### Development builds
During development I find it useful to build all required projects (for instance c++utilities, qtutilities, tagparser and tageditor) as one big
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project.
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This can be easily achieved by using CMake's `add_subdirectory()` function. For project files see the repository
[subdirs](https://github.com/Martchus/subdirs). For an example, see
[build instructions for Syncthing Tray](https://github.com/Martchus/syncthingtray#building-this-straight).
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For a debug build, use `-DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug`.
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#### Arch Linux package
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The repository [PKGBUILDs](https://github.com/Martchus/PKGBUILDs) contains files for building Arch Linux packages of the latest release and
the Git master.
PKGBUILDs to cross compile for Android, Windows (using mingw-w64) and for MacOS X (using osxcross) are included as well.
#### RPM packages for openSUSE and Fedora
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RPM \*.spec files can be found at [openSUSE Build Servide](https://build.opensuse.org/project/show/home:mkittler). Packages are available for
several architectures.
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There is also a [sub project](https://build.opensuse.org/project/show/home:mkittler:vcs) containing the builds from the Git master branch.
#### Gentoo
Packages are provided by perfect7gentleman; checkout his [repository](https://github.com/perfect7gentleman/pg_overlay).