Common C++ classes and routines used by my applications such as argument parser, IO and conversion utilities
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# C++ utilities
Useful C++ classes and routines such as argument parser, IO and conversion utilities.
## Features
The library contains helpers for:
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* parsing command-line arguments and providing Bash completion
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- supports nested arguments
- supports operations (no `--` or `-` prefix, eg. `git status`)
- can check for invalid or uncombinable arguments
- can print help automatically
- provides automatic Bash completion for argument names
- allows customizing Bash completion for argument values
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* dealing with dates and times
* conversion of primitive data types to byte-buffers and vice versa (litte-endian and big-endian)
* common string conversions/operations, eg.
- character set conversions via iconv
- split, join, find and replace
- conversion from number to string and vice verca
- encoding/decoding base-64
- building string without multiple heap allocations ("string builder")
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* using standard IO streams
- reading/writing primitive data types of various sizes (little-endian and big-endian)
- reading/writing terminated strings and size-prefixed strings
- reading/writing INI files
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- reading bitwise (from a buffer; not using standard IO streams)
- writing formatted output using ANSI escape sequences
- instantiating a standard IO stream from a native file descriptor to support UTF-8 encoded
file paths under Windows and Android's `content://` URLs
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* using SFINAE by providing additional traits, eg. for checking whether a type is iterable
* testing with *CppUnit*
- finding testfiles and make working copies of testfiles
- assert standard output
- various helper
* building with CMake by providing some modules and templates
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Besides, the library provides a few useful algorithms and data structures:
* min(), max() for any number of arguments
* digitsum(), factorial(), powerModulo(), inverseModulo(), orderModulo()
* Damerau–Levenshtein distance
* *N*-dimensional array
## API/ABI stability
The following counts for `c++utilities` and my other libraries unless stated otherwise:
* Different major versions are incompatible (API- and ABI-wise). Different major versions can be
installed within the same prefix using the CMake variable `CONFIGURATION_NAME` (see documentation
about build variables mentioned below).
* Minor versions are backwards compatible (API- and ABI-wise) to previous ones within the same major
version.
* Patch versions are interchangeable (API- and ABI-wise) within the same major/minor version.
* Some functions or classes are experimental. They might be modified in an incompatible way or even
removed in the next minor or patch release.
## Build instructions
### Requirements
#### Build-only dependencies
* C++ compiler supporting C++17, tested with
- clang++ to compile for GNU/Linux and Android
- g++ to compile for GNU/Linux and Windows
* CMake (at least 3.3.0)
* cppunit for unit tests (optional)
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* Doxygen for API documentation (optional)
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* Graphviz for diagrams in the API documentation (optional)
* clang-format for tidying (optional)
* llvm-profdata, llvm-cov and cppunit for source-based code coverage analysis (optional)
* [appstreamcli](https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Distributions/AppStream/) for validation
of generated AppStream files (optional)
#### Runtime dependencies
* The c++utilities library itself only needs
* C++ standard library supporting C++17, tested with
- libstdc++ under GNU/Linux and Windows
- libc++ under GNU/Linux and Android
* glibc with iconv support or standalone iconv library
* libstdc++ or Boost.Iostreams for `NativeFileStream` (optional)
* For dependencies of my other projects check the README.md of these projects.
### How to build
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Example using `make`:
```
cd "path/to/build/directory"
cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release \
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX="/final/install/location" \
"path/to/projectdirectory"
make tidy # format source files (optional, must be enabled via CLANG_FORMAT_ENABLED)
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make # build the binaries
make check # build and run tests (optional)
make coverage # build and run tests measuring test coverage (optional, must be enabled via CLANG_SOURCE_BASED_COVERAGE_ENABLED)
make apidoc # build API documentation (optional)
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make DESTDIR="/temporary/install/location" install # install binaries, headers and additional files
```
#### General notes
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* The make option ```-j``` can be used for concurrent compilation.
* ```LIB_SUFFIX```, ```LIB_SUFFIX_32``` and ```LIB_SUFFIX_64``` can be set to
specify a suffix for the library directory, eg. lib*64* or lib*32*. The 32/64 variants are only used when building for 32/64-bit architecture.
* By default the build system will *build* static libs. To *build* shared libraries *instead*, set `BUILD_SHARED_LIBS=ON`.
* By default the build system will prefer *linking against* shared libraries. To force *linking against* static libraries set `STATIC_LINKAGE=ON`.
However, this will only affect applications. To force linking statically when building shared libraries set `STATIC_LIBRARY_LINKAGE=ON`.
* If thread local storage is not supported by your compiler/platform (might be the case on MacOS), you can disable making use of it
via `ENABLE_THREAD_LOCAL=OFF`.
* To disable use of `std::filesystem`, set `USE_STANDARD_FILESYSTEM=OFF`. This is required when building for MacOS and Android at the time of
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writing this documentation. Note that the Bash completion will not be able to suggest files and directories with `USE_STANDARD_FILESYSTEM=OFF`.
* To disable `NativeFileStream` (and make it just a regular `std::fstream`), set `USE_NATIVE_FILE_BUFFER=OFF`. Note that handling paths with
non-ASCII characters will then cease to work on Windows.
* For more detailed documentation, see the documentation about build variables (in
[directory doc](https://github.com/Martchus/cpp-utilities/blob/master/doc/buildvariables.md) and
in Doxygen version accessible via "Related Pages").
* The repository [PKGBUILDs](https://github.com/Martchus/PKGBUILDs) contains build scripts for GNU/Linux, Android, Windows and
MacOS X in form of Arch Linux packages using `ninja`. These scripts can be used as an example also when building under/for other platforms.
#### Windows-specific notes
* To create application icons the tool `ffmpeg`/`avconv` is required.
* Windows builds are only conducted using mingw-w64/GCC. Using MSVC has never been tested.
#### MacOS-specific notes
* To create application icons the tool `png2icns` is required.
* Building for MacOS X under GNU/Linux is possible using [osxcross](https://github.com/tpoechtrager/osxcross).
* MacOS X builds are not tested regularly but should generally work (maybe with minor tweaks necassary)
* There is a [Homebrew formula](https://gist.github.com/rakkesh/0b13b8fca5dd1d57d98537ef1dd2e0dd) to build Tag Editor (without GUI)
* There are [MacPorts packages](https://www.macports.org/ports.php?by=name&substr=syncthingtray-devel) to build Syncthing Tray
#### Development builds
During development I find it useful to build all required projects (for instance c++utilities, qtutilities, tagparser and tageditor) as one big
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project.
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This can be easily achieved by using CMake's `add_subdirectory()` function. For project files see the repository
[subdirs](https://github.com/Martchus/subdirs). For an example, see
[build instructions for Syncthing Tray](https://github.com/Martchus/syncthingtray#building-this-straight).
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For a debug build, use `-DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug`.
#### CMake presets
There are some generic [presets](https://cmake.org/cmake/help/latest/manual/cmake-presets.7.html) available
but also some specific to certain Arch Linux packaging found in the AUR and my PKGBUILDs repository.
Use `cmake --list-presets` to list all presets. All `cmake` commands need to be executed within the source
directory. Builds will be created within a sub-directory of the path specified via the environment variable
`BUILD_DIR`. Here is an example for creating a build with the `arch-static-compat-devel` preset and invoking
tests:
```
export BUILD_DIR=$HOME/builds # set build directory via environment variable
cmake --preset arch-static-compat-devel # configure build
cmake --build --preset arch-static-compat-devel -- -v # conduct build
cmake --build --preset arch-static-compat-devel --target check # run tests
cmake --build --preset arch-static-compat-devel --target tidy # apply formatting
```
This preset is quite special (see [PKGBUILDs](https://github.com/Martchus/PKGBUILDs#static-gnulinux-libraries)
for details about it). The most useful presets for development are likely `devel`, `devel-qt6` and `debug`.
Note that these presets are supposed to cover all of my projects (so some of them aren't really making a
difference when just building c++utilities itself). To use presets in other projects, simply symlink the
file `CMakePresets.json` into the source directory of those projects which works with the "subdirs" projects
mentioned in the previous section as well.
Note that the devel preset (and all presets inheriting from it) uses ccache which therefore needs to be
installed.
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#### Arch Linux package
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The repository [PKGBUILDs](https://github.com/Martchus/PKGBUILDs) contains files for building Arch Linux packages of the latest release and
the Git master.
PKGBUILDs to cross compile for Android, Windows (using mingw-w64) and for MacOS X (using osxcross) are included as well.
#### RPM packages for openSUSE and Fedora
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RPM \*.spec files can be found at [openSUSE Build Servide](https://build.opensuse.org/project/show/home:mkittler). Packages are available for
several architectures.
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There is also a [sub project](https://build.opensuse.org/project/show/home:mkittler:vcs) containing the builds from the Git master branch.
#### Gentoo
Checkout [Case_Of's overlay](https://codeberg.org/Case_Of/gentoo-overlay)
or [perfect7gentleman's overlay](https://gitlab.com/Perfect_Gentleman/PG_Overlay).
## Copyright notice and license
Copyright © 2015-2022 Marius Kittler
All code is licensed under [GPL-2-or-later](LICENSE).