Common C++ classes and routines used by my applications such as argument parser, IO and conversion utilities
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#ifndef CONVERSION_UTILITIES_STRINGCONVERSION_H
#define CONVERSION_UTILITIES_STRINGCONVERSION_H
#include "./binaryconversion.h"
#include "./conversionexception.h"
#include "../misc/traits.h"
#include <cstdlib>
#include <cstring>
#include <initializer_list>
#include <iomanip>
#include <list>
#include <memory>
#include <sstream>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
namespace ConversionUtilities {
/*!
* \brief The StringDataDeleter struct deletes the data of a StringData instance.
*/
struct CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT StringDataDeleter {
/*!
* \brief Deletes the specified \a stringData with std::free(), because the memory has been
* allocated using std::malloc()/std::realloc().
*/
void operator()(char *stringData)
{
std::free(stringData);
}
};
/*!
* \brief Type used to return string encoding conversion result.
*/
using StringData = std::pair<std::unique_ptr<char[], StringDataDeleter>, std::size_t>;
//using StringData = std::pair<std::unique_ptr<char>, std::size_t>; // might work too
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT StringData convertString(
const char *fromCharset, const char *toCharset, const char *inputBuffer, std::size_t inputBufferSize, float outputBufferSizeFactor = 1.0f);
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT StringData convertUtf8ToUtf16LE(const char *inputBuffer, std::size_t inputBufferSize);
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT StringData convertUtf16LEToUtf8(const char *inputBuffer, std::size_t inputBufferSize);
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT StringData convertUtf8ToUtf16BE(const char *inputBuffer, std::size_t inputBufferSize);
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT StringData convertUtf16BEToUtf8(const char *inputBuffer, std::size_t inputBufferSize);
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT StringData convertLatin1ToUtf8(const char *inputBuffer, std::size_t inputBufferSize);
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT StringData convertUtf8ToLatin1(const char *inputBuffer, std::size_t inputBufferSize);
#ifdef PLATFORM_WINDOWS
using WideStringData = std::pair<std::unique_ptr<wchar_t[]>, int>;
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT WideStringData convertMultiByteToWide(const char *inputBuffer, int inputBufferSize = -1);
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT WideStringData convertMultiByteToWide(const std::string &inputBuffer);
#endif
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT void truncateString(std::string &str, char terminationChar = '\0');
/*!
* \brief Joins the given \a strings using the specified \a delimiter.
*
* The strings will be enclosed using the provided closures \a leftClosure and \a rightClosure.
*
* \param strings The string parts to be joined.
* \param delimiter Specifies a delimiter to be used (empty string by default).
* \param omitEmpty Indicates whether empty part should be omitted.
* \param leftClosure Specifies a string to be inserted before each string (empty string by default).
* \param rightClosure Specifies a string to be appendend after each string (empty string by default).
* \tparam Container The STL-container used to provide the \a strings.
* \returns Returns the joined string.
*/
template <class Container = std::initializer_list<std::string>>
typename Container::value_type joinStrings(const Container &strings,
const typename Container::value_type &delimiter = typename Container::value_type(), bool omitEmpty = false,
const typename Container::value_type &leftClosure = typename Container::value_type(),
const typename Container::value_type &rightClosure = typename Container::value_type())
{
typename Container::value_type res;
if (!strings.size()) {
return res;
}
std::size_t entries = 0, size = 0;
for (const auto &str : strings) {
if (omitEmpty && str.empty()) {
continue;
}
size += str.size();
++entries;
}
if (!entries) {
return res;
}
size += (entries * leftClosure.size()) + (entries * rightClosure.size()) + ((entries - 1) * delimiter.size());
res.reserve(size);
for (const auto &str : strings) {
if (omitEmpty && str.empty()) {
continue;
}
if (!res.empty()) {
res.append(delimiter);
}
res.append(leftClosure);
res.append(str);
res.append(rightClosure);
}
return res;
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the specified \a arrayOfLines to a multiline string.
*/
template <class Container = std::initializer_list<std::string>> inline std::vector<std::string> toMultiline(const Container &arrayOfLines)
{
return joinStrings(arrayOfLines, "\n", false);
}
/*!
* \brief Specifies the role of empty parts when splitting strings.
*/
enum class EmptyPartsTreat {
Keep, /**< empty parts are kept */
Omit, /**< empty parts are omitted */
Merge /**< empty parts are omitted but cause the adjacent parts being joined using the delimiter */
};
/*!
* \brief Splits the given \a string at the specified \a delimiter.
* \param string The string to be splitted.
* \param delimiter Specifies the delimiter.
* \param emptyPartsRole Specifies the treatment of empty parts.
* \param maxParts Specifies the maximal number of parts. Values less or equal zero indicate an unlimited number of parts.
* \tparam Container The STL-container used to return the parts.
* \returns Returns the parts.
*/
template <class Container = std::list<std::string>>
Container splitString(const typename Container::value_type &string, const typename Container::value_type &delimiter,
EmptyPartsTreat emptyPartsRole = EmptyPartsTreat::Keep, int maxParts = -1)
{
--maxParts;
Container res;
bool merge = false;
for (typename Container::value_type::size_type i = 0, end = string.size(), delimPos; i < end; i = delimPos + delimiter.size()) {
delimPos = string.find(delimiter, i);
if (!merge && maxParts >= 0 && res.size() == static_cast<typename Container::value_type::size_type>(maxParts)) {
if (delimPos == i && emptyPartsRole == EmptyPartsTreat::Merge) {
if (!res.empty()) {
merge = true;
continue;
}
}
delimPos = Container::value_type::npos;
}
if (delimPos == Container::value_type::npos) {
delimPos = string.size();
}
if (emptyPartsRole == EmptyPartsTreat::Keep || i != delimPos) {
if (merge) {
res.back().append(delimiter);
res.back().append(string.substr(i, delimPos - i));
merge = false;
} else {
res.emplace_back(string.substr(i, delimPos - i));
}
} else if (emptyPartsRole == EmptyPartsTreat::Merge) {
if (!res.empty()) {
merge = true;
}
}
}
return res;
}
/*!
* \brief Splits the given \a string (which might also be a string view) at the specified \a delimiter.
* \param string The string to be splitted.
* \param delimiter Specifies the delimiter.
* \param maxParts Specifies the maximal number of parts. Values less or equal zero indicate an unlimited number of parts.
* \tparam Container The STL-container used to return the parts.
* \returns Returns the parts.
* \remarks This is a simplified version of splitString() where emptyPartsRole is always EmptyPartsTreat::Keep.
*/
template <class Container = std::list<std::string>>
Container splitStringSimple(const typename Container::value_type &string, const typename Container::value_type &delimiter, int maxParts = -1)
{
--maxParts;
Container res;
for (typename Container::value_type::size_type i = 0, end = string.size(), delimPos; i < end; i = delimPos + delimiter.size()) {
delimPos = string.find(delimiter, i);
if (maxParts >= 0 && res.size() == static_cast<typename Container::value_type::size_type>(maxParts)) {
delimPos = Container::value_type::npos;
}
if (delimPos == Container::value_type::npos) {
delimPos = string.size();
}
res.emplace_back(string.substr(i, delimPos - i));
}
return res;
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the specified \a multilineString to an array of lines.
*/
template <class Container = std::vector<std::string>> inline std::vector<std::string> toArrayOfLines(const std::string &multilineString)
{
return splitString<Container>(multilineString, "\n", EmptyPartsTreat::Keep);
}
/*!
* \brief Returns whether \a str starts with \a phrase.
*/
template <typename StringType> bool startsWith(const StringType &str, const StringType &phrase)
{
if (str.size() < phrase.size()) {
return false;
}
for (auto stri = str.cbegin(), strend = str.cend(), phrasei = phrase.cbegin(), phraseend = phrase.cend(); stri != strend; ++stri, ++phrasei) {
if (phrasei == phraseend) {
return true;
} else if (*stri != *phrasei) {
return false;
}
}
return false;
}
/*!
* \brief Returns whether \a str starts with \a phrase.
*/
template <typename StringType> bool startsWith(const StringType &str, const typename StringType::value_type *phrase)
{
for (auto stri = str.cbegin(), strend = str.cend(); stri != strend; ++stri, ++phrase) {
if (!*phrase) {
return true;
} else if (*stri != *phrase) {
return false;
}
}
return false;
}
/*!
* \brief Returns whether \a str contains the specified \a substrings.
* \remarks The \a substrings must occur in the specified order.
*/
template <typename StringType> bool containsSubstrings(const StringType &str, std::initializer_list<StringType> substrings)
{
typename StringType::size_type currentPos = 0;
for (const auto &substr : substrings) {
if ((currentPos = str.find(substr, currentPos)) == StringType::npos) {
return false;
}
currentPos += substr.size();
}
return true;
}
/*!
* \brief Returns whether \a str contains the specified \a substrings.
* \remarks The \a substrings must occur in the specified order.
*/
template <typename StringType>
bool containsSubstrings(const StringType &str, std::initializer_list<const typename StringType::value_type *> substrings)
{
typename StringType::size_type currentPos = 0;
for (const auto *substr : substrings) {
if ((currentPos = str.find(substr, currentPos)) == StringType::npos) {
return false;
}
currentPos += std::strlen(substr);
}
return true;
}
/*!
* \brief Replaces all occurences of \a find with \a relpace in the specified \a str.
*/
template <typename StringType> void findAndReplace(StringType &str, const StringType &find, const StringType &replace)
{
for (typename StringType::size_type i = 0; (i = str.find(find, i)) != StringType::npos; i += replace.size()) {
str.replace(i, find.size(), replace);
}
}
/*!
* \brief Returns the character representation of the specified \a digit.
* \remarks
* - Uses capital letters.
* - Valid values for \a digit: 0 <= \a digit <= 35
*/
template <typename CharType> constexpr CharType digitToChar(CharType digit)
{
return digit <= 9 ? (digit + '0') : (digit + 'A' - 10);
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the given \a number to its equivalent string representation using the specified \a base.
* \tparam IntegralType The data type of the given number.
* \tparam StringType The string type (should be an instantiation of the basic_string class template).
* \sa stringToNumber()
*/
template <typename IntegralType, class StringType = std::string,
Traits::EnableIf<std::is_integral<IntegralType>, std::is_unsigned<IntegralType>> * = nullptr>
StringType numberToString(IntegralType number, typename StringType::value_type base = 10)
{
std::size_t resSize = 0;
for (auto n = number; n; n /= base, ++resSize)
;
StringType res;
res.reserve(resSize);
do {
res.insert(res.begin(), digitToChar<typename StringType::value_type>(number % base));
number /= base;
} while (number);
return res;
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the given \a number to its equivalent string representation using the specified \a base.
* \tparam IntegralType The data type of the given number.
* \tparam StringType The string type (should be an instantiation of the basic_string class template).
* \sa stringToNumber()
*/
template <typename IntegralType, class StringType = std::string,
Traits::EnableIf<std::is_integral<IntegralType>, std::is_signed<IntegralType>> * = nullptr>
StringType numberToString(IntegralType number, typename StringType::value_type base = 10)
{
const bool negative = number < 0;
std::size_t resSize;
if (negative) {
number = -number, resSize = 1;
} else {
resSize = 0;
}
for (auto n = number; n; n /= base, ++resSize)
;
StringType res;
res.reserve(resSize);
do {
res.insert(res.begin(), digitToChar<typename StringType::value_type>(number % base));
number /= base;
} while (number);
if (negative) {
res.insert(res.begin(), '-');
}
return res;
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the given \a number to its equivalent string representation using the specified \a base.
* \tparam FloatingType The data type of the given number.
* \tparam StringType The string type (should be an instantiation of the basic_string class template).
* \remarks This function is using std::basic_stringstream interanlly and hence also has its limitations (eg. regarding
* \a base and types).
* \sa stringToNumber(), bufferToNumber()
*/
template <typename FloatingType, class StringType = std::string, Traits::EnableIf<std::is_floating_point<FloatingType>> * = nullptr>
StringType numberToString(FloatingType number, typename StringType::value_type base = 10)
{
std::basic_stringstream<typename StringType::value_type> ss;
ss << std::setbase(base) << number;
return ss.str();
}
/*!
* \brief Returns number/digit of the specified \a character representation using the specified \a base.
* \throws A ConversionException will be thrown if the provided \a character does not represent a valid digit for the specified \a base.
* \todo Provide an alternative using std::expected (when switching to C++17).
*/
template <typename CharType> CharType charToDigit(CharType character, CharType base)
{
CharType res = base;
if (character >= '0' && character <= '9') {
res = character - '0';
} else if (character >= 'a' && character <= 'z') {
res = character - 'a' + 10;
} else if (character >= 'A' && character <= 'Z') {
res = character - 'A' + 10;
}
if (res < base) {
return res;
}
std::string errorMsg;
errorMsg.reserve(36);
errorMsg += "The character \"";
errorMsg += character;
errorMsg += "\" is no valid digit.";
throw ConversionException(std::move(errorMsg));
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the given \a string to an unsigned number assuming \a string uses the specified \a base.
* \tparam IntegralType The data type used to store the converted value.
* \tparam StringType The string type (should be an instantiation of the basic_string class template).
* \throws A ConversionException will be thrown if the provided \a string is not a valid number.
* \sa numberToString(), bufferToNumber()
* \todo Provide an alternative using std::expected (when switching to C++17).
*/
template <typename IntegralType, typename StringType, Traits::EnableIf<std::is_integral<IntegralType>, std::is_unsigned<IntegralType>> * = nullptr>
IntegralType stringToNumber(const StringType &string, typename StringType::value_type base = 10)
{
IntegralType result = 0;
for (const auto &c : string) {
if (c == ' ') {
continue;
}
result *= base;
result += charToDigit<typename StringType::value_type>(c, base);
}
return result;
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the given \a string to a signed number assuming \a string uses the specified \a base.
* \tparam IntegralType The data type used to store the converted value.
* \tparam StringType The string type (should be an instantiation of the basic_string class template).
* \throws A ConversionException will be thrown if the provided \a string is not a valid number.
* \sa numberToString(), bufferToNumber()
* \todo Provide an alternative using std::expected (when switching to C++17).
*/
template <typename IntegralType, class StringType, Traits::EnableIf<std::is_integral<IntegralType>, std::is_signed<IntegralType>> * = nullptr>
IntegralType stringToNumber(const StringType &string, typename StringType::value_type base = 10)
{
auto i = string.begin();
auto end = string.end();
for (; i != end && *i == ' '; ++i)
;
if (i == end) {
return 0;
}
const bool negative = (*i == '-');
if (negative) {
++i;
}
IntegralType result = 0;
for (; i != end; ++i) {
if (*i == ' ') {
continue;
}
result *= base;
result += charToDigit<typename StringType::value_type>(*i, base);
}
return negative ? -result : result;
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the given \a string to a number assuming \a string uses the specified \a base.
* \tparam FloatingType The data type used to store the converted value.
* \tparam StringType The string type (should be an instantiation of the basic_string class template).
* \throws A ConversionException will be thrown if the provided \a string is not a valid number.
* \remarks This function is using std::basic_stringstream interanlly and hence also has its limitations (eg. regarding
* \a base and types).
* \sa numberToString(), bufferToNumber()
* \todo Provide an alternative using std::expected (when switching to C++17).
*/
template <typename FloatingType, class StringType, Traits::EnableIf<std::is_floating_point<FloatingType>> * = nullptr>
FloatingType stringToNumber(const StringType &string, typename StringType::value_type base = 10)
{
std::basic_stringstream<typename StringType::value_type> ss;
ss << std::setbase(base) << string;
FloatingType result;
if ((ss >> result) && ss.eof()) {
return result;
}
std::string errorMsg;
errorMsg.reserve(42 + string.size());
errorMsg += "The string \"";
errorMsg += string;
errorMsg += "\" is no valid floating number.";
throw ConversionException(errorMsg);
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the given null-terminated \a string to an unsigned numeric value using the specified \a base.
* \tparam IntegralType The data type used to store the converted value.
* \tparam CharType The character type.
* \throws A ConversionException will be thrown if the provided \a string is not a valid number.
* \sa numberToString(), bufferToNumber()
* \todo Provide an alternative using std::expected (when switching to C++17).
*/
template <typename IntegralType, class CharType, Traits::EnableIf<std::is_integral<IntegralType>, std::is_unsigned<IntegralType>> * = nullptr>
IntegralType stringToNumber(const CharType *string, unsigned char base = 10)
{
IntegralType result = 0;
for (; *string; ++string) {
if (*string == ' ') {
continue;
}
result *= base;
result += charToDigit<CharType>(*string, base);
}
return result;
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the given null-terminated \a string to a number assuming \a string uses the specified \a base.
* \tparam FloatingType The data type used to store the converted value.
* \tparam CharType The character type.
* \throws A ConversionException will be thrown if the provided \a string is not a valid number.
* \remarks This function is using std::basic_stringstream interanlly and hence also has its limitations (eg. regarding
* \a base and types).
* \sa numberToString(), bufferToNumber()
* \todo Provide an alternative using std::expected (when switching to C++17).
*/
template <typename FloatingType, class CharType, Traits::EnableIf<std::is_floating_point<FloatingType>> * = nullptr>
FloatingType stringToNumber(const CharType *string, unsigned char base = 10)
{
std::basic_stringstream<CharType> ss;
ss << std::setbase(base) << string;
FloatingType result;
if ((ss >> result) && ss.eof()) {
return result;
}
std::string errorMsg;
errorMsg.reserve(42 + std::char_traits<CharType>::length(string));
errorMsg += "The string \"";
errorMsg += string;
errorMsg += "\" is no valid floating number.";
throw ConversionException(errorMsg);
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the given \a string of \a size characters to an unsigned numeric value using the specified \a base.
* \tparam IntegralType The data type used to store the converted value.
* \tparam CharType The character type.
* \throws A ConversionException will be thrown if the provided \a string is not a valid number.
* \sa numberToString(), stringToNumber()
*/
template <typename IntegralType, class CharType, Traits::EnableIf<std::is_integral<IntegralType>, std::is_unsigned<IntegralType>> * = nullptr>
IntegralType bufferToNumber(const CharType *string, std::size_t size, unsigned char base = 10)
{
IntegralType result = 0;
for (const CharType *end = string + size; string != end; ++string) {
if (*string == ' ') {
continue;
}
result *= base;
result += charToDigit<CharType>(*string, base);
}
return result;
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the given null-terminated \a string to a signed numeric value using the specified \a base.
* \tparam IntegralType The data type used to store the converted value.
* \tparam CharType The character type.
* \throws A ConversionException will be thrown if the provided \a string is not a valid number.
* \sa numberToString(), bufferToNumber()
*/
template <typename IntegralType, class CharType, Traits::EnableIf<std::is_integral<IntegralType>, std::is_signed<IntegralType>> * = nullptr>
IntegralType stringToNumber(const CharType *string, unsigned char base = 10)
{
if (!*string) {
return 0;
}
for (; *string && *string == ' '; ++string)
;
if (!*string) {
return 0;
}
const bool negative = (*string == '-');
if (negative) {
++string;
}
IntegralType result = 0;
for (; *string; ++string) {
if (*string == ' ') {
continue;
}
result *= base;
result += charToDigit<CharType>(*string, base);
}
return negative ? -result : result;
}
/*!
* \brief Converts the given \a string of \a size characters to a signed numeric value using the specified \a base.
* \tparam IntegralType The data type used to store the converted value.
* \tparam CharType The character type.
* \throws A ConversionException will be thrown if the provided \a string is not a valid number.
* \sa numberToString(), stringToNumber()
*/
template <typename IntegralType, class CharType, Traits::EnableIf<std::is_integral<IntegralType>, std::is_signed<IntegralType>> * = nullptr>
IntegralType bufferToNumber(const CharType *string, std::size_t size, unsigned char base = 10)
{
if (!size) {
return 0;
}
const CharType *end = string + size;
for (; string != end && *string == ' '; ++string)
;
if (string == end) {
return 0;
}
const bool negative = (*string == '-');
if (negative) {
++string;
}
IntegralType result = 0;
for (; string != end; ++string) {
if (*string == ' ') {
continue;
}
result *= base;
result += charToDigit<CharType>(*string, base);
}
return negative ? -result : result;
}
/*!
* \brief Interprets the given \a integer at the specified position as std::string using the specified byte order.
*
* Example: interpretation of ID3v2 frame IDs (stored as 32-bit integer) as string
* - 0x54495432/1414091826 will be interpreted as "TIT2".
* - 0x00545432/5526578 will be interpreted as "TT2" using start offset 1 to omit the first byte.
*
* \tparam T The data type of the integer to be interpreted.
*/
template <typename T> std::string interpretIntegerAsString(T integer, int startOffset = 0)
{
char buffer[sizeof(T)];
ConversionUtilities::BE::getBytes(integer, buffer);
return std::string(buffer + startOffset, sizeof(T) - startOffset);
}
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT std::string dataSizeToString(uint64 sizeInByte, bool includeByte = false);
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT std::string bitrateToString(double speedInKbitsPerSecond, bool useByteInsteadOfBits = false);
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT std::string encodeBase64(const byte *data, uint32 dataSize);
CPP_UTILITIES_EXPORT std::pair<std::unique_ptr<byte[]>, uint32> decodeBase64(const char *encodedStr, const uint32 strSize);
} // namespace ConversionUtilities
#endif // CONVERSION_UTILITIES_STRINGCONVERSION_H