Common C++ classes and routines used by my applications such as argument parser, IO and conversion utilities
You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.
 
 
 

601 lines
24 KiB

#include "argumentparser.h"
#include "failure.h"
#include "../conversion/stringconversion.h"
#include "../misc/random.h"
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>
#include <stdexcept>
using namespace std;
using namespace std::placeholders;
/*!
\namespace ApplicationUtilities
\brief Contains currently only ArgumentParser and related classes.
*/
namespace ApplicationUtilities {
/*!
* \class ApplicationUtilities::Argument
* \brief The Argument class is a wrapper for command line argument information.
*
* Instaces of the Argument class are used as definition when parsing command line
* arguments. Arguments can be assigned to an ArgumentParser using
* ArgumentParser::setMainArguments() and to another Argument instance using
* Argument::setSecondaryArguments().
*/
/*!
* Constructs an Argument with the given \a name, \a abbreviation and \a description.
*
* The \a name and the abbreviation mustn't contain any whitespaces.
* The \a name mustn't be empty. The \a abbreviation and the \a description might be empty.
*/
Argument::Argument(const std::string &name, const std::string abbreviation, const std::string &description) :
m_required(false),
m_combinable(false),
m_implicit(false),
m_denotesOperation(false),
m_requiredValueCount(0),
m_default(false),
m_present(false),
m_isMainArg(false)
{
setName(name);
setAbbreviation(abbreviation);
setDescription(description);
}
/*!
* Constructs an Argument with the given \a name, \a abbreviation and \a description.
* The \a name and the abbreviation mustn't contain any whitespaces.
* The \a name mustn't be empty. The \a abbreviation and the \a description might be empty.
*/
Argument::Argument(const char *name, const char *abbreviation, const char *description) :
m_required(false),
m_combinable(false),
m_implicit(false),
m_requiredValueCount(0),
m_default(false),
m_present(false),
m_isMainArg(false)
{
setName(name);
setAbbreviation(abbreviation);
setDescription(description);
}
/*!
* Destroys the Argument.
*/
Argument::~Argument()
{}
///*!
// * \brief Checks whether the argument is ambigious.
// * \returns Returns zero if the argument is not ambigious. Returns 1 if the name
// * is ambiguous and 2 if the abbreviation is ambiguous.
// */
//unsigned char Argument::isAmbiguous(const ArgumentParser &parser) const
//{
// function<unsigned char (const ArgumentVector &args, const Argument *toCheck)> check;
// check = [&check] (const ArgumentVector &args, const Argument *toCheck) -> unsigned char {
// for(const auto *arg : args) {
// if(arg != toCheck) {
// if(!toCheck->name().empty() && arg->name() == toCheck->name()) {
// return 1;
// } else if(!toCheck->abbreviation().empty() && arg->abbreviation() == toCheck->abbreviation()) {
// return 2;
// }
// }
// if(auto res = check(arg->parents(), toCheck)) {
// return res;
// }
// }
// return 0;
// };
// if(auto res = check(parser.mainArguments(), this)) {
// return res;
// }
// return check(parents(), this);
//}
/*!
* Appends the name, the abbreviation and the description of the Argument
* to the give ostream.
*/
void Argument::printInfo(ostream &os, unsigned char indentionLevel) const
{
for(unsigned char i = 0; i < indentionLevel; ++i) os << " ";
if(!name().empty()) {
os << "--" << name();
}
if(!name().empty() && !abbreviation().empty()) {
os << ", ";
}
if(!abbreviation().empty()) {
os << "-" << abbreviation();
}
if(requiredValueCount() > 0) {
int valueNamesPrint = 0;
for(auto i = valueNames().cbegin(), end = valueNames().cend(); i != end && valueNamesPrint < requiredValueCount(); ++i) {
os << " [" << *i << "]";
++valueNamesPrint;
}
for(; valueNamesPrint < requiredValueCount(); ++valueNamesPrint) {
os << " [value " << (valueNamesPrint + 1) << "]";
}
} else if(requiredValueCount() < 0) {
for(auto i = valueNames().cbegin(), end = valueNames().cend(); i != end; ++i) {
os << " [" << *i << "]";
}
os << " ...";
}
++indentionLevel;
if(!description().empty()) {
os << endl;
for(unsigned char i = 0; i < indentionLevel; ++i) os << " ";
os << description();
}
if(isRequired()) {
os << endl;
for(unsigned char i = 0; i < indentionLevel; ++i) os << " ";
os << "This argument is required.";
}
os << endl;
for(const Argument *arg : secondaryArguments()) {
arg->printInfo(os, indentionLevel + 1);
}
}
/*!
* This function return the first present and uncombinable argument of the given list of arguments.
* The Argument \a except will be ignored.
*/
Argument *firstPresentUncombinableArg(const ArgumentVector &args, const Argument *except)
{
for(Argument *arg : args) {
if(arg != except && arg->isPresent() && !arg->isCombinable()) {
return arg;
}
}
return nullptr;
}
/*!
* Sets the secondary arguments for this arguments. The given arguments will be considered as
* secondary arguments of this argument by the ArgumentParser. This means that the parser
* will complain if these arguments are given, but not their parent. If secondary arguments are
* labeled as mandatory their parent is also mandatory.
*
* The Argument does not take ownership. Do not destroy the given arguments as long as they are
* used as secondary arguments.
*
* \sa secondaryArguments()
* \sa hasSecondaryArguments()
*/
void Argument::setSecondaryArguments(const ArgumentInitializerList &secondaryArguments)
{
// remove this argument from the parents list of the previous secondary arguments
for(Argument *arg : m_secondaryArgs) {
arg->m_parents.erase(remove(arg->m_parents.begin(), arg->m_parents.end(), this), arg->m_parents.end());
}
// assign secondary arguments
m_secondaryArgs.assign(secondaryArguments);
// add this argument to the parents list of the assigned secondary arguments
// and set the parser
for(Argument *arg : m_secondaryArgs) {
if(find(arg->m_parents.cbegin(), arg->m_parents.cend(), this) == arg->m_parents.cend()) {
arg->m_parents.push_back(this);
}
}
}
/*!
* Returns the names of the parents in the form "parent1", "parent2, "parent3", ...
* Returns an empty string if this Argument has no parents.
* \sa parents()
*/
string Argument::parentNames() const
{
string res;
if(m_parents.size()) {
vector<string> names;
names.reserve(m_parents.size());
for(const Argument *parent : m_parents) {
names.push_back(parent->name());
}
res.assign(ConversionUtilities::joinStrings(names, ", "));
}
return res;
}
/*!
* Returns true if at least one of the parents is present.
* Returns false if this argument has no parents or none of its parents is present.
*/
bool Argument::isParentPresent() const
{
for(Argument *parent : m_parents) {
if(parent->isPresent()) {
return true;
}
}
return false;
}
/*!
* Checks if this arguments conflicts with other arguments. If the argument is in conflict
* with an other argument this argument will be returned. Otherwise nullptr will be returned.
*/
Argument *Argument::conflictsWithArgument() const
{
if(!isCombinable() && isPresent()) {
for(Argument *parent : m_parents) {
for(Argument *sibling : parent->secondaryArguments()) {
if(sibling != this && sibling->isPresent() && !sibling->isCombinable()) {
return sibling;
}
}
}
}
return nullptr;
}
/*!
* \class ApplicationUtilities::ArgumentParser
* \brief The ArgumentParser class provides a means for handling command line arguments.
*
* To setup the parser create instances of ApplicationUtilities::Argument to define a
* set of known arguments and assign these to the parser using setMainArguments().
*
* To invoke parsing call parseArgs(). The parser will verify the previously
* assigned definitions (and might throw std::invalid_argument) and then parse the
* given command line arguments according the definitions (and might throw
* ApplicationUtilities::Failure).
*/
/*!
* Constructs a new ArgumentParser.
*/
ArgumentParser::ArgumentParser() :
m_actualArgc(0),
m_ignoreUnknownArgs(false)
{}
/*!
* Sets the main arguments for the parser. The parser will use these argument definitions
* to when parsing the command line arguments and when printing help information.
*
* The parser does not take ownership. Do not destroy the arguments as long as they are used as
* main arguments.
*/
void ArgumentParser::setMainArguments(const ArgumentInitializerList &mainArguments)
{
for(Argument *arg : mainArguments) {
arg->m_isMainArg = true;
}
m_mainArgs.assign(mainArguments);
}
/*!
* Prints help information for all main arguments which have been set using setMainArguments().
*/
void ArgumentParser::printHelp(ostream &os) const
{
if(!m_mainArgs.size()) {
return;
}
os << "Available arguments:\n";
for(const Argument *arg : m_mainArgs) {
arg->printInfo(os);
}
}
/*!
* Returns the first argument definition which matches the predicate.
* The search includes all assigned main argument definitions and their sub arguments.
*/
Argument *ArgumentParser::findArg(const ArgumentPredicate &predicate) const
{
return findArg(m_mainArgs, predicate);
}
/*!
* Returns the first argument definition which matches the predicate.
* The search includes all provided \a arguments and their sub arguments.
*/
Argument *ArgumentParser::findArg(const ArgumentVector &arguments, const ArgumentPredicate &predicate)
{
for(Argument *arg : arguments) {
if(predicate(arg)) {
return arg; // argument matches
} else if(Argument *subarg = findArg(arg->secondaryArguments(), predicate)) {
return subarg; // a secondary argument matches
}
}
return nullptr; // no argument matches
}
/*!
* This method is used to verify the setup of the command line parser before parsing.
*
* This function will throw std::invalid_argument when a mismatch is detected:
* - An argument is used as main argument and as sub argument at the same time.
* - An argument abbreviation is used more then once.
* - An argument name is used more then once.
* If none of these conditions are met, this method will do nothing.
*
* \remarks Usually you don't need to call this function manually because it is called by
* parse() automatically befor the parsing is performed.
*/
void ArgumentParser::verifySetup() const
{
vector<Argument *> verifiedArgs;
vector<string> abbreviations;
vector<string> names;
function<void (const ArgumentVector &args)> checkArguments;
checkArguments = [&verifiedArgs, &abbreviations, &names, &checkArguments, this] (const ArgumentVector &args) {
for(Argument *arg : args) {
if(find(verifiedArgs.cbegin(), verifiedArgs.cend(), arg) != verifiedArgs.cend())
continue; // do not verify the same argument twice
if(arg->isMainArgument() && arg->parents().size())
throw invalid_argument("Argument \"" + arg->name() + "\" can not be used as main argument and sub argument at the same time.");
if(!arg->abbreviation().empty() && find(abbreviations.cbegin(), abbreviations.cend(), arg->abbreviation()) != abbreviations.cend())
throw invalid_argument("Abbreviation \"" + arg->abbreviation() + "\" has been used more then once.");
if(find(names.cbegin(), names.cend(), arg->name()) != names.cend())
throw invalid_argument("Name \"" + arg->name() + "\" has been used more then once.");
if(arg->isDefault() && arg->requiredValueCount() > 0 && arg->defaultValues().size() < static_cast<size_t>(arg->requiredValueCount()))
throw invalid_argument("Default argument \"" + arg->name() + "\" doesn't provide the required number of default values.");
abbreviations.push_back(arg->abbreviation());
names.push_back(arg->name());
verifiedArgs.push_back(arg);
checkArguments(arg->secondaryArguments());
}
};
checkArguments(m_mainArgs);
}
/*!
* This method invokes verifySetup() before parsing. See its do documentation for more
* information about execptions that might be thrown to indicate an invalid setup of the parser.
*
* If the parser is setup properly this method will parse the given command line arguments using
* the previsously set argument definitions.
* If one of the previsously defined arguments has been found, its present flag will be set to true
* and the parser reads all values tied to this argument.
* If an argument has been found which does not match any of the previous definitions it will be
* considered as unknown.
* If the given command line arguments are not valid according the defined arguments an
* Failure will be thrown.
*/
void ArgumentParser::parseArgs(int argc, char *argv[])
{
// initiate parser
verifySetup();
m_actualArgc = 0; // reset actual agument count
unsigned int actualArgc = 0;
int valuesToRead = 0;
// read current directory
if(argc >= 1) {
m_currentDirectory = string(*argv);
} else {
m_currentDirectory.clear();
}
// parse given arguments
if(argc >= 2) {
Argument *currentArg = nullptr;
// iterate through given arguments
for(char **i = argv + 1, ** end = argv + argc; i != end; ++i) {
string givenArg(*i); // convert argument to string
if(!givenArg.empty()) { // skip empty entries
if(valuesToRead <= 0 && givenArg.size() > 1 && givenArg.front() == '-') {
// we have no values left to read and the given arguments starts with '-'
// -> the next "value" is a main argument or a sub argument
ArgumentPredicate pred;
string givenId;
size_t equationPos = givenArg.find('=');
if(givenArg.size() > 2 && givenArg[1] == '-') {
// the argument starts with '--'
// -> the full argument name has been provided
givenId = givenArg.substr(2, equationPos - 2);
pred = [&givenId, equationPos] (Argument *arg) {
return arg->name() == givenId;
};
} else {
// the argument starts with a single '-'
// -> the abbreviation has been provided
givenId = givenArg.substr(1, equationPos - 1);
pred = [&givenId, equationPos] (Argument *arg) {
return arg->abbreviation() == givenId;
};
}
// find the corresponding instande of the Argument class
currentArg = findArg(pred);
if(currentArg) {
// the corresponding instance of Argument class has been found
if(currentArg->m_present) {
// the argument has been provided more then once
throw Failure("The argument \"" + currentArg->name() + "\" has been given more then one time.");
} else {
// set present flag of argument
currentArg->m_present = true;
++actualArgc; // we actually found an argument
// now we might need to read values tied to that argument
valuesToRead = currentArg->requiredValueCount();
if(equationPos != string::npos) {
// a value has been specified using the --argument=value syntax
string value = givenArg.substr(equationPos + 1);
if(valuesToRead != 0) {
currentArg->m_values.push_back(value);
if(valuesToRead > 0) {
--valuesToRead;
}
} else {
throw Failure("Invalid extra information \"" + value + "\" (specified using \"--argument=value\" syntax) for the argument \"" + currentArg->name() + "\" given.");
}
}
}
} else {
// the given argument seems to be unknown
if(valuesToRead < 0) {
// we have a variable number of values to expect -> treat "unknown argument" as value
goto readValue;
} else {
// we have no more values to expect so we need to complain about the unknown argument
goto invalidArg;
}
}
} else {
readValue:
if(!currentArg) {
// we have not parsed an argument before
// -> check if an argument which denotes the operation is specified
if(i == argv + 1) {
for(Argument *arg : m_mainArgs) {
if(!arg->isPresent() && arg->denotesOperation()
&& (arg->name() == givenArg || arg->abbreviation() == givenArg)) {
currentArg = arg;
break;
}
}
if(currentArg) {
currentArg->m_present = true;
++actualArgc; // we actually found an argument
// now we might need to read values tied to that argument
valuesToRead = currentArg->requiredValueCount();
continue;
}
}
// -> check if there's an implicit argument definition
for(Argument *arg : m_mainArgs) {
if(!arg->isPresent() && arg->isImplicit()) {
// set present flag of argument
arg->m_present = true;
++actualArgc; // we actually found an argument
// now we might need to read values tied to that argument
valuesToRead = arg->requiredValueCount();
currentArg = arg;
break;
}
}
}
if(currentArg) {
// check if the given value is tied to the most recently parsed argument
if(valuesToRead == 0) {
throw Failure("Invalid extra information \"" + givenArg + "\" for the argument \"" + currentArg->name() + "\" given.");
} else if(valuesToRead < 0) {
currentArg->m_values.push_back(givenArg);
} else {
currentArg->m_values.push_back(givenArg);
--valuesToRead; // one value less to be read
}
} else {
// there is no implicit argument definition -> the "value" has to be an argument
// but does not start with '-' or '--'
invalidArg:
string msg("The given argument \"" + givenArg + "\" is unknown.");
if(m_ignoreUnknownArgs) {
cout << msg << " It will be ignored." << endl;
} else {
throw Failure(msg);
}
}
}
}
}
}
// function for iterating through all arguments
function<void(Argument *, const ArgumentVector &, const function<void (Argument *, Argument *)> &)> foreachArg;
foreachArg = [&foreachArg] (Argument *parent, const ArgumentVector &args, const function<void (Argument *, Argument *)> &proc) {
for(Argument *arg : args) {
proc(parent, arg);
foreachArg(arg, arg->secondaryArguments(), proc);
}
};
// iterate actually through all arguments using previously defined function to check gathered arguments
foreachArg(nullptr, m_mainArgs, [this] (Argument *parent, Argument *arg) {
if(arg->isPresent()) {
if(!arg->isMainArgument() && arg->parents().size() && !arg->isParentPresent()) {
if(arg->parents().size() > 1) {
throw Failure("The argument \"" + arg->name() + "\" needs to be used together with one the following arguments: " + arg->parentNames());
} else {
throw Failure("The argument \"" + arg->name() + "\" needs to be used together with the argument \"" + arg->parents().front()->name() + "\".");
}
}
Argument *conflictingArgument = nullptr;
if(arg->isMainArgument()) {
if(!arg->isCombinable() && arg->isPresent()) {
conflictingArgument = firstPresentUncombinableArg(m_mainArgs, arg);
}
} else {
conflictingArgument = arg->conflictsWithArgument();
}
if(conflictingArgument) {
throw Failure("The argument \"" + conflictingArgument->name() + "\" can not be combined with \"" + arg->name() + "\".");
}
if(!arg->allRequiredValuesPresent()) {
stringstream ss(stringstream::in | stringstream::out);
ss << "Not all required information for the given argument \"" << arg->name() << "\" provided. You have to give the following information:";
int valueNamesPrint = 0;
for(const auto &name : arg->m_valueNames) {
ss << "\n" << name;
++valueNamesPrint;
}
while(valueNamesPrint < arg->m_requiredValueCount) {
ss << "\nvalue " << (++valueNamesPrint);
}
throw Failure(ss.str());
}
} else { // argument not present
// the argument might be flagged as present if its a default argument
if(arg->isDefault() && (arg->isMainArgument() || (parent && parent->isPresent()))) {
arg->m_present = true;
if(firstPresentUncombinableArg(arg->isMainArgument() ? m_mainArgs : parent->secondaryArguments(), arg)) {
arg->m_present = false;
}
}
// throw an error if mandatory argument is not present
if(!arg->isPresent() && (arg->isRequired() && (arg->isMainArgument() || (parent && parent->isPresent())))) {
throw Failure("The argument \"" + arg->name() + "\" is required but not given.");
}
}
});
// set actual argument count
m_actualArgc = actualArgc;
// interate through all arguments again to invoke callback functions
foreachArg(nullptr, m_mainArgs, [] (Argument *parent, Argument *arg) {
if(arg->m_callbackFunction) {
if(arg->isMainArgument() || (parent && parent->isPresent())) {
// only invoke if its a main argument or the parent is present
if(arg->isPresent()) {
if(arg->isDefault() && !arg->values().size()) {
arg->m_callbackFunction(arg->defaultValues());
} else {
arg->m_callbackFunction(arg->values());
}
}
}
}
});
}
/*!
* \brief The HelpArgument class prints help information for an argument parser
* when present (--help, -h).
*/
/*!
* \brief Constructs a new help argument for the specified parser.
*/
HelpArgument::HelpArgument(ArgumentParser &parser) :
Argument("help", "h", "shows this information")
{
setCallback([&parser] (const StringVector &) {parser.printHelp(cout);});
}
}